PatchDance provides a large number of modeling operations, distinct from the Tools found in the Tool Palette. Most are controlled from the Model menu, the Operations Palette, or both. In earlier versions, many operations had small, non-modal control dialogs; most of these have been merged into a single palette. Where the Model menu provides a Dialog... option, it now has the effect of scrolling the Operations palette to that section.
This discussion begins by describing the Operations palette in general, then covering the individual operations that are controlled by it.
Ops Palette | Interface | Lathe | Extrude | Flip | Join | Lofting | Randomize | Scale | Shapes | Smoothing | Sweep | New Patch | Fill Mesh
The Operations Palette is a scrolling view containing panes for various purposes. It can be floating or not (Option or Command double-click the title bar) and its status (including open or closed) is remembered between launches. At the top is a popup menu listing all the installed control panes for quick access, and a button that returns to the previous one that was selected.
Most of the buttons in Control panes have hotkeys; these can be
viewed by holding down option (hotkeys appear in red). They are also
shown directly on icon=style buttons (as in the Tool Palette). This
is in addition to default (outlined) buttons.
IMPORTANT: since many panes of buttons share the same view, must be distinguished in some way in order to make hotkeys work. When a pane is SELECTED, it is outlined by a heavy dark line. Hotkeys are only available for the currently selected pane. Obviously hotkeys will not work correctly if a text edit field is active. Do not try to use hotkeys with the command key down: this is interpreted as a menu command instead of a button.
Hotkeys are limited to digits and the Return key ONLY, to avoid conflicts with the letters used in the Tool Palette. The shift key is also used; the hotkey is shown underlined, rather than as the shifted character (and return appears as R.)
When tiling windows, the Operations Palette (if open) is placed in its default position. If it has been changed to non-floating, however, the Model/Camera windows are expanded to cover about 3/4 of it, leaving a narrow strip to click and bring it to the front. For maximum window size, close the Operations Palette, tile windows (Windows / Tile Windows), then reopen the Operations Palette (also in the Windows menu). As usual, for best drawing speed, avoid overlapping any Model or Camera windows with other windows.
The Interface section of the Operations Palette was originally a small floating palette called either the General or the Data palette. It provides readouts of various model and computer parameters, controls the modeling grid, and beginning with v0.4.8, provides a means of temporarily setting certain Preferences.
The top part displays counts of Points, splines and patches. The format should be self explanatory, with a few notes:
Free RAM is updated after each operation. Try to keep it above 1,000,000 or save often.
The 3D Cursor position can be read from the 3 edit fields, or changed by typing numbers into them or using the thumbwheel feature.
Origin refers to the center of PatchDance's coordinate system. Every model is initially referenced to the point (0,0,0), which cannot be changed. It is also possible to use relative coordinates, referenced to any point in space.
When Use Relative is checked, all position refernces are relative to the current coordinate system, set by the user (it defaults to (0,0,0) if not set.) Set Model (Origin) sets the coordinate system to the 3D Cursor position, shown in the edit fields; Get Model (Origin) retrieves this value (and moves the 3D Cursor there.) NOTE: Set Model ALWAYS sets a new coordinate origin; this value has no effect unless Use Relative is checked.
Show Grid causes the grid to be drawn in the Model windows (the button changes to Hide Grid). The grid is square, 3 dimensional, and can be drawn in any desired color. It is hidden if the spacing becomes less than about 10 pixels. The grid ALWAYS aligns with the Rulers. The grid origin can be set the same way as the model origin (to the current 3D Cursor position), by clicking Set Grid (Origin).
The grid spacing can be set in 2 ways:
The Preferences section contains several checkboxes that display the status of various program settings and allows changing them quickly (rather than opening the Preferences dialog). Changes made here are NOT saved, they are used for the current session only. The preferences listed here may vary in future releases, see the Preferences section of this Manual for more information.
This section controls the Lathe function. Interactive Lathing is also available using the Rotator (R) Tool. PatchDance's lathing is fairly standard, with a few extra capabilities. In general, it rotates the selection around a line passing through the 3D Cursor in the current / last active window.
Extrusions are Objects and have a default texture parameterization applied. They can be edited using the Name Arrow (N).
Angle is self explanatory; checking the x 360° checkbox causes Angle to be interpreted as complete revolutions rather than degrees.
Steps is the number of times the lathed object is replicated; the default setting (4 steps, 360°) results in 3 copies (plus the original), 90 degrees apart. Alternately, checking Degrees / Step allows you to specify a degree measure directly.
Arc Types controls the type of connecting arcs drawn between copies of the lathed object. Curve and Line are self explanatory; None means to draw no connections at all (replicate the lathed object only).
Lathe Axis refers to a line through the 3D Cursor in the current/last active Model window. This is the axis the lathed object is rotated around.
Join Points controls how Points that lie on the lathe axis are treated. Normally, such Points that are not duplicated; Don't Join On Axis causes them to be repeated for each step. Join Tolerance, which can be expressed either in pixels or ruler units, allows you to join (not duplicate) Points that are almost but not quite on axis. (It is also possible to Snap the desired points to the lathe axis, giving a tolerance of 0, using Snap Selection to Cursor with Depth control).
Advanced allows further modification of lathing, to simulate the Sweep function found in some modeling programs. These functions have default values that produce no effect.
Offset (Lathe Axis) causes the lathed object to be
moved along the lathe axis at each step; the value is
divided by the number of steps to get the total for each
complete revolution (360 degrees). Add Bounds to Offset
automatically use the "height" of the lathe object
itself (along the lathe axis): this simplifies producing
screw shapes. This can also be used with a single point to
produce a spiral, which can then be used as an extrusion
path. Offset is Per Step causes the full offset to be
applied at each step.
Scale Radius causes the lathed object to move away from the lathe axis by a percentage each revolution. this produces flat spiral shapes. Logarithmic Scale causes the scaling to be applied at each step; the result of this is a "nautilus."
This section controls the Extrude function. Interactive Extrusion is also available using the Move (D) Tool; see below. PatchDance offers a full set of extrusion capabilities: in general, the selection i moved through 3D space, sweeping out a volume / area as it goes.
Extrusions are Objects and have a default texture parameterization applied. They can be edited using the Name Arrow (N).
Mode is a popup menu that controls the type of extrusion:
Splines controls the type of spline connectors drawn. This is mostly self explanatory:
Twist causes the selection to be rotated around the extrusion axis. This value is applied over the entire extrusion, or at each step if Per Step is checked.
Scale applies a percentage scaling to the selection at each step. This value is applied over the entire extrusion, or at each step if Log Scale is checked.
This section contains additional information on spline paths used to control extrusions. Any combination of splines can be used (selection is ignored); it is only necessary to snap the 3D Cursor to the desired starting Point.
Where there is a choice of direction (branched path, closed path, or open path with the Cursor snapped to a non-endpoint) PatchDance will always go in the direction of a selected Point, if any. Exactly one selected point is REQUIRED in this case, except with simple closed loops: in this case the program will always go in the order that the Points were selected, if both are (this usually makes no difference).
Join moves Points together (Average) and/or welds them into one (Join).
The Tolerance is the maximum separation allowed along each axis. You can choose to ignore distance along a given axis by checking Ignore, or prevent Points from moving on an axis by checking Lock. Using Lock will obviously affect Join operations, since Points are not free to move together in 3D.
Checking 3D Distance causes the Tolerance to be applied in 3D (one value) rather than along each axis separately.
At Cursor causes Points to be moved to/joined at the Cursor location only; this is similar to a Snap Selection To Cursor operation.
Lofting (also known as Skinning) is the process of growing a mesh over a number of (usually 2D) forms to produce a 3D object. This method is used to produce shapes that can't readily be made using Lathing or Extruding, usually because of non-symmetry. PatchDance has complete Lofting support, controlled from the Model / Loft menu. This submenu offers a choice of Smoothed, Straight, and Segment splines, which are the types of connectors used to join the lofted objects into a mesh.
Lofting can use any number of forms, which are actually paths. (Unlike extrusion paths, they must be entirely selected.) PatchDance does allow you to use both closed and open paths, and even mix them in the same lofted object. The only requirement is to specify corresponding points and a wrapping direction for each form: these points act like a "seam," controlling how the mesh is produced.
Points are located and used in the order selected; the best way to do this is:
This method works well for closed loops: if a form is open, it is only necessary to click one end or the other with the Object Arrow (C), since there is no choice of direction. Starting an open form in the middle is not supported.
TIP: The easiest way to do this is to type the letters C, A. This selects the Object Arrow (C) followed by the Arrow (A). You can then alternate between them by clicking the space bar as you move through your forms.
Loftings are Objects and have a default texture parameterization applied. In most cases they can be freely edited, since they are in fact meshes and can only be damaged if Points are added or removed.
Randomize is a simple operation: it randomly moves all selected points and / or spline handles, within the set tolerance for each axis. Currently only one randomization algorithm is provided. Randomize will damage most Object types.
Randomizing Points or Handles separately gives an unusual effect that can simulate texturing, depending on the number of Points involved.
This is a standard scaling function, operating in conjunction with the Scale (S) Tool. You can specify scaling in each axis independently, or force all 3 to be equal by checking Uniform Scale. Checking Live Data causes the interactive scaling factor to be recorded.
Numeric applies the scaling factors to the
selection, relative to the Cursor location.
Half and Double are shortcuts for halving and doubling scale.
Center and Centroid set the Cursor. This is a shortcut for snapping the Cursor manually. If Alternate Interface is checked in the Interface Section, clicking with the Scale (S) Tool performs an automatic snap to selection centroid before scaling.
This is used to create primitive shapes. It is associated with the Shapes (O) tool, which is used to draw interactively; shapes can also be produced numerically.
This section of the Operations Palette can be accessed by scrolling, selecting Shapes from the menu at the top, typing Option-O, or Option/Double-clicking the Shapes Tool (O) button in the Tools Palette
These buttons choose the shape and mode. They lock down, like theTool Palette, and the Shape Caption immediately below describes the chosen shape if the drawing on the button is unclear. There are 4 general areas:
2D: These are basic plane figures, drawn as expected using the mouse (with a few differences, described below.) When constructed numerically, the LAST selected Model Window is used.
Hints for 2D shapes:
- Three-Point circles. It can be shown that there is a circle through all possible sets of 3 points, and you may occasionally wish to draw one (finding the largest circle that can pass through a 3 gap with 3 points). This works in a slightly unusual way: the FIRST click-and-drag behaves exactly like drawing a circle by diameter (2 points) and leaves a ghosted circle on the screen (no geometry is created); the SECOND drag produces a circle through the previous two points plus the mouse position. Clicking outside the window canncels the operation.
- Three-Point Squares are also drawn in two stages like 3 point circles. This is hard to describe: try it for yourself and you'll see what can be done. Remember, you must click and drage TWICE, and you will not necessarily get a right angled square.
- Squares-by-Side-Length are not necessarily right angled and should be experimented with.
- Arcs (buttons 4, 5) are clockwise or counterclockwise arcs. They are drawn as a base line, which sets the radius and starting angle. The SECOND click and drag produces an arc from the mouseup point of the FIRST click. This is best understood by experiment.
- Circles are always composed of 4 spline arcs; Arcs and 3 Point Circles are less predictable. They will always have Points at the ends (Arcs) and at the 3 defining points (Circles); more are added as needed to avoid any arc greater than 90°.
- Only perfect circles are supported (no ovals - you must scale a circle). The mouse is anchored to the perimeter of the circle, NOT its bounding square, and can be snapped.
Polygons: These are standard plane polygons, having 3 - 99 sides (must be set in Sides box). They are drawn by either radius or diameter, much like circles.
3D: These are primitive 3D shapes, circles and hemispheres. The Mode is ignored when using 3D.
Mode: The type of shape produced. This has no effect with the 3D shapes. There are four choices:
2D: (default) Produces standard plane figures.
Extrude From: extrudes by the amount in the Depth (3D) box, "UP" from the 3D Cursor depth in the current window.
Extrude Centered: extrudes by the amount in the Depth (3D) box, centered on the 3D Cursor depth in the current window.
Converge: Like Extrude From, except that the shape is converged to a point rather than being extruded. This is used to produce cones and pyramid-shapes.
This describes the currently chosen shape, including the 2D/3D mode.
These are labeled as to their function. They are used to enter data when constructing numerically or to record data when drawing interactively (if the Get Data checkbox is Checked). Not all are used for every operation (Sides is only used for Polygons, for example), and the labels change depending on the shape chosen above.(Radius can become Diameter, for example ).
Get Data (checkbox). This causes the result of interactive drawing to be copied into the data fields above. It is useful when you wish to duplicate a shape that is modified: draw something the correct size, for example, then change some of the parameters and make new copies.
Fill Base (checkbox). When checked, figures are filled. this changes a circle (which is pure geometry, 4 splines) into a disk (a patched surface).
Use Segments (checkbox). When checked, figures are constructed using Segments rather than Straight splines. This obviously does not apply to curved figures.
At Cursor (action buttons) These create a shape based on the rest of the settings. They are the same except that At Cursor constructs the shape centered on the 3D Cursor location, while Numeric uses the values in the edit fields. Not all shapes can be constructed numerically.
Smooth applies smoothing to a selection. You can choose to smooth both selected (both ends) and deselected (only one end selected) splines: the default is BOTH.
Smooth Selection applies PatchDance's best method to create a smooth surface.
Average Handles is a simpler method that simply averages all handles together. Unlike Smooth Selection, it doesn't consider the shape of the selection.
Straighten Splines and Make Segments convert splines to those forms. These are UNSmooth operations.
Smoothing Factor is used with Smooth Selection, and controls the "power" of the smoothing operation. The default value of 1 was chose to convert a square into a circle; greater values add more curvature.
Interactive Smooth is a way to interactively apply smoothing where fine control is needed. Clicking cause an immediate Smooth Selection using the current Smoothing factor. Dragging left or right adjusts that factor and applies it to the selection, with live updating. This can be useful when importing polygonal models where the curvature varies: it is much easier to smooth the polygonal shape this way.
This term is provided for completeness. PatchDance has no separate sweep function, however the advanced capabilities of the Lathe and Extrude functions can produce the same results with greater flexibility than most dedicated sweeps.
Trim is a pseudo-boolean operation. It is not operational as of this writing but is planned for release in 1997.
There are several categories of boolean operations:
PatchDance's Trim operation is of the second (surface) type. It does produce new spline surfaces, unlike most trims which must polygonize.
New Patch is accessed from the Model/Patches submenu. It is used to create patches in empty, selected spline outlines. It creates at most ONE patch: see Fill Mesh below if you have several outlines.
New Patch also has a limited ability to create patches from incomplete outlines by creating missing splines. This was designed as a shortcut when producing many polygonal patches, and is not necessarily the best way to work. Any splines produced this way will be Straight (i.e., the resulting patches will be flat, at least along the new edges.) For this to work:
The extra requirements for 4 sided patches are due to the fact that there are many possible combinations of 4 Points to form an outline: PatchDance cannot determine what you want without additional information.
Fill Mesh is accessed from the Model/Patches submenu. It is used to create patches in empty, selected spline outlines. It creates patches anywhere it can find a selected closed path: see New Patch above is more efficient for creating individual patches.
Fill Mesh cannot create splines: it ignores any Points that are not part of a closed, selected path. It may also create patches that are not intended: if you want a hole, make sure it is not bounded by 3 or 4 selected splines. This is easier to do by accident than it sounds!